Wine Making Talk

A Tour through Champagne!
By: Jeff Anderson
Service Temperatures: Your Secret Weapon for Enjoying Wine
By: Joanna Opaskar | Mar 27th 2015
In her book Jancis Robinson's Wine Course, Robinson writes "It is impossible to overestimate the effect of serving temperatures on how a wine will taste." The common wisdom says that white wines should be served ... 0


The Vintner's Chair: Steve "vacuumpumpman"
By: Austin McLendon | Feb 20th 2015
"Vacuumpumpman" is a member who requires no introduction. If you've read The Vintner's Chair in the past you'll note one product above all others is mentioned as being a must have, and Steve is the reason that p ... 8
HomeBrewTalk 2015 Big Giveaway!
By: Austin McLendon | Mar 16th 2015
In case you didn't know we're part of a network dedicated to all things beer, wine, and fermenting which includes the world's largest site dedicated to brewing, HomeBrewTalk.com. Once a year on HomeBrewTalk we launch the ...

Humor Uncorked: Wine is Good for You
By: Ken Currie | Mar 09th 2015
For thousands of years wine has been considered a healthful drink. This is because the main alternative drink for much of human history was a foul diseased concoction known as water. "What was so bad about the water ... 0


A Winemakers Trip to Italy
By: Jeff Anderson | Mar 04th 2015
"We're all set," Wayne Feller said when he came back to our table. Wayne Feller and I are amateur winemakers and were participants in an elegant master class in New York City sponsored by the Consorzio Vino Chi ... 0


The Vintner's Chair: Raelene "the_rayway" Hall
By: Austin McLendon | Feb 27th 2015
There's more than one way to make a wine. There's your way, my way, then of course there's the_Rayway! All of our lives are filled with duties and responsibilities that can make winemaking a chore at times, but not for R ... 8


The Vintner's Vocabulary
By: Austin McLendon | Feb 25th 2015
However you decide to get into winemaking, be it a kit, some fruit from your garden, or any of the endless possibilities there are some thing you're going to have to know beyond the basic "juice + yeast + time = wine ... 1


Going Bananas - Making Banana Flower Wine!
By: Austin McLendon | Feb 18th 2015
Banana wine is one of the more popular fruit wines a winemaker can make. Typically if you're focusing your attention on fruit wines Banana wines are on your list, but after you finish that up are you done with your foray ... 1


Jack Keller







WINEMAKING: THE BASIC STEPS


EXTRACTING FLAVOR

"The base [base ingredients] is where the wine's flavor and aroma comes from."
The first essential step in winemaking is to extract the flavor and aroma from the base ingredients by chopping, crushing, pressing, boiling or soaking them. This can be done in several ways. The recipes on this site each select and specify a particular method for accomplishing this.
Allegheny Shadbush Wine
Agarita Wine
Aronia Berry Wine
Autumn Olive Wine
Barberry Wine
Bilberry Wines
Black Raspberry Wine
Black Cherry Wine
Canadian Serviceberry Wine
Chickweed Wine
Chicory Wine
Chokecherry Wine
Cloudberry Wine
Damson Wine
Dandelion Wine
Blending Wines
Conversions and Equivalents
Edible Flowers Suitable for use in Home Winemaking
Extended Instructions for Making Wine from Kits
Feeding Your Yeast
Finishing Your Wine
Grape Concentrates
How to make a Yeast Starter Solution
Measuring Additives in Winemaking
Strains of Wine Yeast
Sugars in Winemaking
The Miracle of Yeast
Types and Styles of Wine
Using Your Hydrometer
Wine Labels
Winemaking Additives and Cleansers
Winemaking Problems
Winemaking Records
Glossary of Winemaking Terms: "A new language...."
The Basic Steps: "The fundamentals...in detail."
Advanced Winemaking Basics: "The foundations...."
Yeast Strains updated 12/12/14!
The Miracle of Yeast : "All about yeast and their strains."
Winemaking Questions : "Questions and answers...."


Winemaking Recipes: "You can experiment, or...."
The largest collection on the Internet today!!!
Requested Recipes: "Answering viewer needs...."X Visitor-Submitted Recipes: "Recipes shared by viewers"
More recipes--
Wines from Wild Edible Plants : "Nature will provide...."
MORE winemaking recipes--
Making Wines in Texas : "If it ain't toxic...."
You don't have to be a Texan to try'em!
Native North American Grapes and Recipes : "Good wine"Acidity in Wines
Downy Serviceberry Wine
Elderberry Wines
Gooseberry Wines
Gorse Wine
Greengage Wine
Hackberry Wine
Highbush Cranberry Wine
Huckleberry Wine
Huisache Flower Wine
Madrone Berry Wines
Mayhaw Wine
Mesquite Bean Wine
Mountain Ash Wine
Nettles Wines
Pawpaw Wine
Persimmon Wine
Plum Wines
Prickly Pear Cactus Wine
Red Clover Wines
Red Raspberry Wine
Salal Berry Wines
Sand Burr Wine
Saskatoon Serviceberry Wine
Sloe Wine
Staghorn Sumac Wine
Thimbleberry Wine
WHOLE FRUIT OR BERRIES: If you begin with whole fruit or berries, there are four basic methods of extracting flavors and aromas. The base is first prepared. It might be peeled or not. Seeds (pits) might be removed or not. Immature (not yet fully ripe) fruit or berries are culled (removed), as are those showing signs of over-ripeness (brown spots, mold, rot) or bird or insect damage. After washing to remove dust, bird droppings, insects and pesticides, the extraction method is selected. Placing the fruit or berries in a nylon straining bag before it is placed in the primary greatly eases the later removal of the pulp from the must.


  • Cold maceration. The fruit or berries are crushed or chopped or sliced and placed in the primary fermentation vessel (called simply the primary). Sugar, water and sulfites (crushed Campden tablets or potassium metabisulfite), as specified in the recipe, are added and stirred in well and the primary is covered and set aside for 8-10 hours. Then pectic enzyme is added, stirred in well, and the primary is refrigerated for a specified period (usually 24-48 hours). It is then removed and allowed to return to room temperature. Additional ingredients are then added, stirred in well, and the yeast culture (in the form of a starter solution) is introduced.
  • Hot water extraction. The fruit or berries are crushed or chopped or sliced and placed in the primary fermentation vessel. The necessary amount of sugar is added and boiling water is poured over the fruit and sugar. A sanitized wooden spoon or paddle is used to stir the must to help dissolve the sugar. The primary is covered and set aside to cool to room temperature. Additional ingredients are then added in a timed fashion according to the recipe and then the yeast culture is introduced in a starter solution.
  • Direct heat extraction. The fruit or berries are crushed or chopped or sliced and placed in a stainless steel cooking pot. A small amount of water is added to prevent scorching and the pot is placed on the stove on medium-high heat until the juices begin to flow from the base. Usually, the liquid is not allowed to boil. The base is stirred to heat it evenly. After a set amount of time, it is removed from the heat. The liquid is usually fermented without the pulp, but in some cases the pulp is left in the liquid and the two are fermented together. If the liquid only is to be fermented, the base is either strained hot or allowed to cool before being strained. The fruit and berries, or just the juice, are placed in the primary for fermentation. The sugar and water may be added while still hot, but most other ingredients are not added until the mixture cools to room temperature. This method is only used for particular reasons, as the cooking adds another flavor component to the finished wine that many find objectionable.
  • Fermentation extraction. The fruit or berries are crushed or chopped or sliced and placed in the primary fermentation vessel. Other ingredients, including sugar, water, sulfites, pectic enzyme, acid blend, yeast nutrients, etc., are added in a time-dependent fashion and then the yeast culture is introduced in a starter solution. Flavors and aromas are extracted by the fermentation action of the yeast on the must. This occurs at a normal (room) ambient temperature.

FRUIT JUICE OR CONCENTRATE: Concentrates are reconstituted (diluted with water) into juice before fermenting. Other ingredients are added to protect and balance the must after it is placed in a primary. Always begin fermentation in a primary, without an airlock, unless specially instructed to begin in a carboy. The inoculate (yeast culture added to the juice) needs exposure to oxygen for the first 48-72 hours to assist the yeast in rapid reproduction and increase the population to a density suitable for rapid fermentation.
FLOWERS AND LEAVES: Some of the best wines are made from flower petals. Dandelion, rose petal and hibiscus are three flowers that make excellent wines. Honeysuckle, cactus flower, tulip, red or white clover, and coreopsis also make wonderful wines. Flavor is usually extracted by one of three methods. Place the flowers (usually just the petals) in a nylon straining bag to reduce cleanup time and effort. Brambles, vine prunings, nettle tops, and leaves of selected trees and herbs are processed the same as are flowers and petals.

  • Hot water extraction. The flowers or petals are placed in the primary fermentation vessel. The necessary amount of sugar is added and boiling water is poured over the flowers and sugar. A sanitized wooden spoon or paddle is used to stir the must to help dissolve the sugar. The primary is covered and set aside to cool to room temperature. Additional ingredients are then added in a timed fashion according to the recipe. The mixture is sometimes allowed to steep for some time and then brought to a boil in a stainless steel pot, allowed to cool, and then placed in primary. When cooled and fortified with all additional ingredients (acid blend, tannin, yeast nutrient, etc., the yeast culture is introduced in a starter solution.
  • Direct heat extraction. The flowers or petals are placed in a stainless steel cooking pot. A small amount of water is added to prevent scorching and the pot is placed on the stove on medium-high heat and brought to a boil for a set amount of time. It is removed from the heat and poured through a straining bag or muslin cloth draped in a funnel. The liquid is allowed to cool and transferred to a primary. The sugar and remaining water may be added while still hot, but most other ingredients are not added until the liquid cools to room temperature.
  • Fermentation extraction. The flowers or petals are placed in the primary fermentation vessel. Other ingredients, including sugar, water, sulfites, pectic enzyme, acid blend, yeast nutrients, etc., are added in a time-dependent fashion and then the yeast culture is introduced in a starter solution. Flavors and aromas are extracted by the fermentation action of the yeast on the must. This occurs at a normal (room) ambient temperature.

Additives and Other Ingredients






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